Environment, climate, weather

Greenhouse effect
•    Greenhouse
-    small building made from glass
-    through glass sunshine goes but not back and in greenhouse is warm for plant
•     native greenhouse effect
-    it exists because of our Earth, it is useful for having a good temperature on Earth
•    anthropogenic greenhouse effect
-    it exists because of people, people cut forest and burning fossil fuels and so on
-    in atmosphere are a lot of greenhouse gases (carbon dioxide CO2, water, methane CH4 and so on)
-    greenhouse gases function like glass in greenhouse (sunshine goes through the greenhouse gases but not back and in greenhouse is warm for our people and our Earth)
•    dissolving of glaciers, the water level goes up

Acid rain
•    native acid rain
-    because of carbon dioxide CO2, it is in atmosphere
-    it mixed with water CO2 + H2O → H2CO3 carbonic acid
-    on land fallen acid rain
•    anthropogenic acid rain
-    because of sulphur dioxide SO2, it is in volcano and in fossil fuels
-    it mixed with oxygen SO2 + O2 → SO3 sulphur trioxide
-    it mixed with water SO3 + H2O → H2SO4 sulphuric acid
-    on land fallen acid rain
-    because of nitrogen oxide NO, it is in cars
•    it destroys trees
•    in land: it destroys plants and animals have not food
•    in water: it destroys fishes and water plants
•    in civilisation: it destroys buildings Notre Dame in Paris

Ozone hole
•    ozone
-    it’s type of oxygen, there are 3 atoms of oxygen, write: O3
-    we need it because ozone absorbs dangerous UV (Ultraviolet) rays and protects our Earth
-    ozone is in stratosphere, it’s layer in 10 to 50 km from Earth
-    it’s toxic for people
•    how and when ozone originate (= vzniknout)?
-    ozone originated million years ago
-    when flowers growed under water and on Earth wasn’t life, there wasn’t life because of UV rays
-    the flowers in water made photosynthesis and oxygen got above water and because of UV rays started to joined and it originate ozone O3
-    after that Earth was save and life could go from water
•    hole
-    people release (= uvolňovat) chemicals into atmosphere
-    chemicals – it means CFCs (chlorofluorocarbons) and halons we started to produce it in 1930 – we used it in refrigerators (= chladnička), air conditioners, cleaning  fluids (= tekutina), they were parts of aerosol sprays for many years
-    but most horrible are factories, they used the higgest percent of this chemicals
-    in 1974 scientists say hypothesis: CFCs are getting into stratosphere and they are destroying ozone layer
-    now we know it’s true and it’s horrible true
-    the first we can see ozone hole in 80’s above the Antarctic, today ozone hole is above South America, Australia and all north hemisphere
•    what happen in stratosphere?
1)    CFCs escape into atmosphere and attack ozone f.ex. chlorine attacks molecule of O3, it takes one oxygen and now there isn’t ozone, there are only chlorine monoxide ClO and oxygen O2
2)    chlorine monoxide ClO meets oxygen O and it creates chlorine Cl and oxygen O2
3)    chlorine Cl can attacks molecule of O3 again
-    one atom chlorine destroys 100 000 ozone molecules, it means ozone can’t replenish (= doplnit) and in ozone layer is hole now

-    in 1990, most of industrial nations agreed to stop using this chemicals, but some nations are using it now
-    exactly: in 1987 was rewrote Montreal treaty – it treaty about reduction and stopping production of CFCs
-    but if all factories and homes stop to using this chemicals and never used again, the ozone layer will be still destroyed by this chemical for 100 years because chemicals standing in ozone layer for 100 years
•    what does it mean for our Earth?
-    dissolving of glaciers because of hot
-    cancer (= rakovina) because of UV rays – typical is skin cancer (= rakovina kůže) because of sunbathing on UV rays
-    gen mutation (sheeps on mountains have a big problems today – problems with eyes)
-    sunshine is most important for flowers, vegetables and fruits, they are smaller, product less photosynthesis, we have less oxygen
-    reduction immunity

•    important in this days
•    process when you can use one product more times and economize (= šetřit) nature
•    before houses are dustbin (= popelnice) with special colours: blue – papers, yellow – plastic, green – glass

Pollution of seas and rivers
•    because of fertiliser (= hnojivo) in agriculture, chemical protection of plants, production of chemical materials, rubbish, sewage drains (= domovní kanalizace), industry
•    materials: nitrogen, ammonia, cyanophytes
•    fishes are dieing, less fresh water, diseases

•    in The Czech Republic
•    temperate climatic zone, heart of Europe
•    climate divided into 4 parts – 4 season: spring, summer, autumn and winter
-    spring – begins on 21st of March, life wakes up after long winter sleep, first flowers are: snowdrops (= sněženky), snowflakes (= bledule), crocus, dandelions (= pampelišky), daffodils, purple violet, catkins (= kočičky), first birds are: swallows, starlings (= špačci)   
    – in April is weather changeable (at the morning is raining and at the afternoon sun is shinning)
    – through spring are typical temperatures between 5 to 15 degrees above zero during day and around zero during night, sometimes sun shines but no so strong, it rains a lot
-    summer – is my favourite season, because of sun, warm, amount of colour, it begins on 21st of June, typical is flowers everywhere (on land, on trees), sky is blue and it is sunny, for summer is typical storm or thunderstorm too
        – we gather (= sbírat) cherries, grapes, summer apples, plums on our garden
        – through summer are temperatures 25 degrees above zero and more during day and 10 to 15 degrees
 above zero during night
        – days are longer and nights are shorter, the day light is good for psychical feels
-    autumn – begins on 23rd September, typical is red, orange and yellow colours on tree, on land and on fruits
        – I don’t like this season – back to school, good bay holidays, chilly days, low temperature, more and cold rain, more mud
        – Indian summer – it means nice and hot weather during autumn
        – we gather (= sbírat) apples, pears, plums on our garden
        – trees: maples (= javory), birches (= břízy), beeches (= buky), oaks (= duby) become yellow, orange, brown, red but pines (= smrky) are firs (= jedle) are always green
        – birds are preparing for journey to south
        – at the morning can be first freeze and typical is 5 to 10 degrees above zero during day and 5 to 0 degrees during night
-    winter –  begins on 21st of December
        – first snowfalls, wind, cold, rain + snow
        – I love it, it is snow everywhere (everything looks like clean), you can throwing snowballs, build snowman, sledging, skating
        – during winter, there is Christmas – days with family, a lot of food, presents, buying a lot of
        – typical is 2 degrees above zero and 5 to degrees below zero during day and 5 to 10 degrees below zero during night
        – sometimes is hard frost, snow storm, 20 degrees below zero
        – sometimes is not winter, 20 degrees above zero, slush

•    in The United Kingdom
•    temperate climatic zone, it is island
•    mild and rainy climate because of ocean
-    summer not so warm
-    winter not so cold
-    typical is fog, rain, wind, chilly and very changeable weather (at the morning is raining and at the afternoon sun is shinning and at the evening is rain too) – English love to talk about weather, they start talk with question about weather

•    in The United States of America
•    from temperate climatic zone to subtropical climatic zone
•    temperate: 4 season, mild climate
•    subtropical: more hot, more sun, a lot of rain
-    summer is dry and so hot
-    winter is wet and colder
•    climate is influenced by oceans stream and oceans too

Climatic zone
•    artic
-    the north and south of our Earth
-    so cold
-    polar day – half of year is day and light, polar night – half of year is night and dark (depressive)
-    extremely cold and long winter, 25 to 50 degrees below zero, cold wind, snow storm, soil is frozen
•    temperate
-    typical is 4 season: spring, summer, autumn, winter – every season is 3 months
-    hot, cold, mild climate
-    variable – a lot of kinds of animals, trees, weather
-    temperature is between 5 degrees below zero to 30 degrees above zero
•    subtropical
-    only 2 season: winter and summer
-    summer is dry and so hot, winter is wet and colder, it has warm rain
-    temperature is between 10 degrees to 30 degrees above zero
•    tropical
-    only 1 season: summer
-     very wet, typical is warm rain or hot day
-    temperature is between 25 to 50 degrees above zero

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